Typography Fundamentals

Typography is one of the considerable knowledge and industry fields, based on typefaces. They are an integral part of any graphic design, publishing or typing projects. However, before clashing with fonts' choice that appears to a major issue in design, one should get acquainted with typography fundamentals, accumulated from famous typographers for centuries, including basic terms, styles and principles.

Typography is a primary integral part of any web0design project, as its main purpose is to carry information. In addition, it is an art of text decoration, so it could readable and beautiful at the same time.

Type family is usually mistaken for types or fonts. In sober fact, it is a group of fonts of the same origin, structure and image. It is a set of stylistically similar characters that you can write or print. Type family includes figures, letters and symbols. Font is a narrows concept, which is determined by several factors, such as size and style. In general, Arial is a type family, and Arial Bold is a font of this type family.

Serif fonts or Antiqua embraces all the fonts with small serifs at the top or at the bottom of their characters. They are strongly recommended for large text paragraphs because of their low readability. These are good for headlines and title lines. Serif fonts have been used since the Middle Ages period (for instance, one can pay attention to OldStyle Century). The characteristic feature: the part written at certain angle is usually thin. Beside Old Style Century, the group of old-fashioned Antiqua fonts embrace such type families (remember this term?) Centaur and Goudy Old Style.

The 18th century was a turning point in typography. It was a period of transitional serifs . The difference between wide and thin character lines is strongly visible, which may be observed in numerous fonts of the time – Baskerville, Times New Roman, Caslon, Bookman, Georgia, etc.

Later they were replaced with Slab serifs , which feature the same width of the lines.

Sans serifs or Grotesque fonts appeared at the end of the 18th century. There are four main types of sans serifs: grotesque fonts (Franklin Gothic) are very similar to serif fonts; Neo-Grotesque fonts (Arial. Helvetica), Humanist fonts (Optima, Verdana, Frutiger) are marked with thorough calligraphic letters and Geometric sans serifs are the most advanced modern fonts. The last ones include Metro, Futura, Eurostile, Rodchenko, etc.

There are also some other groups of fonts of equal importance, including Script and Decorative, but mostly they came from basic serifs and sans serif fonts .

Superdry Clothing – Sizes Explained

The problem is that Superdry sizes 'appear to be different' from other brands in the market (I've put that in inverted commas for a reason). That and the internet is plagued of misleading information on this topic. I've decided to sort this out once and for all. Or at least until Superdry change things up again. Superdry is actually very accurately sized. I know you were not expecting to hear that so I will explain why.

The Problem with Standards
There is an international standard for clothing sizes. The International Standards Organization, also known as ISO. They are the governing body for all sorts of standards, including a standard measure for the sizing of clothes. This should, in theory, give us a reference to be able to accurately choose clothes and convert between US, UK, European and other sizes. But it does not. There are problems with the international standards.

Getting too deep into these standards is beyond the scope of this article so I'm going to cut to the chase. There problem comes in two parts; Using letter codes like Small, Medium, Large and Extra Large and clothing manufacturers taking liberties with the established standards. They are not obliged to conform to the standard so there is not likely to be any change in the future. When compared to other clothing brands, a good rule of thumb is that Superdry clothing is approximately one size smaller. They are sized to fit properly but as most other clothing manufacturers are getting more and more generous with their sizing, it's better to go for one size bigger in Superdry clothes. For example, if you are usually a medium then you buy a large in Superdry.

Superdry Size Chart
Superdry clothing complies with the international standards; the problem is that other clothing companies do not. Superdry also use letter codes, so there must be a look up table to convert a size from Small, to chest size or women's dress size. If you've looked at their website you would have noticed that there is not such a helpful table anywhere to be found. I've developed a Superdry size chart.

Men's Superdry Clothing Size Chart

Sizes are chest sizes, measured in inches.

Extra Small = 36 "
Small = 38 "
Medium = 40 "
Large = 42 "
Extra Large = 44 "
Extra Extra Large = 46 "

Men's waist sizes are pretty straight forward. They are all in inches, the standard measure so you should not have any problems selecting your size.

Women's Superdry Size Chart
The UK and US dress sizes are matched to the ISO standards and may not necessarily match up to the size you would normally buy in other clothing brands. It is intended that you go by the actual measurements (in inches).

Extra Small = UK Size 8 / US Size 4 = Bust 34 ", Waist 25.5", Hip 36.5 "
Small = UK Size 10 / US Size 6 = Bust 34 ", Waist 26.5", Hip 37.5 "
Medium = UK Size 12 / US Size 8 = Bust 35 ", Waist 27.5", Hip 38.5 "
Large = UK Size 14 / US Size 10 = Bust 36 ", Waist 28.5", Hip 39.5 "

Buying Superdry Clothing
Probably the best advice I can give you is try before you buy but what if you do not have a store near you? Is this case you are left with the only option, to shop online where you can not try the item on before you buy it. There are exceptions however. Some stores, like Nucleus, offer free return postage on internet orders so in effect you can try the stuff on and send it back if it does not fit. It's a slight hassle getting to the post office but at least it will not cost you anything.

Comparison Between Egyptian and Mesopotamian Religions and Beliefs!

The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominating influence in the development of their culture. The Egyptian faith was based on a collection of ancient myths, nature worship, and innumerable deities. Sumerian lives were spent serving the gods in the form of man-made statues. There was no organized set of gods; each city-state had its own patrons, temples, and priest-kings. The Sumerians were probably the first to write down their beliefs, which were the inspiration for much of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed by a tin dome. While the Mesopotamian’s didn’t have anything quit to scale with the pyramids, they did use and build ziggurats for religious purposes.

Both civilizations were centered on religion. Egypt believed in many gods. The gods Mesopotamia believed in tended to be absolute rulers to whom the people owed total devotion. In both civilizations religious leaders were given very high status and held in high regard. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are two religions that believed in monotheism. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both civilizations believed that the gods created them. Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for the purpose of serving their gods. Both worshipers took their names from the numerous gods and the cults that honored the deities, and priests in both religions were no special clothes, and made daily offering in the temples and held annual festivals open to public.

Mesopotamian religion saw humans as the servants of the gods, who had to be appeased for protection. Egyptians believed that the gods created all humans but were also controlled by the principle of maat, or order. Unlike followers of Mesopotamian religion, the Egyptians had a strong belief in the afterlife, which they expressed by building elaborate tombs such as the pyramids. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent into a gloomy netherworld to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a Gidim (ghost). Egyptians believed that their gods had created Egypt as a sort of refuge of good and order in a world filled with chaos and disorder. The major god for much of Mesopotamia was the sky god Enlil; later th e worship of Enlil was replaced by the worship of the Babylonian god Marduk. For Egyptians, Amen-Ra was the most powerful deity, chief of the pantheon. Statues of winged bulls were a protective symbol related to the god Sin Mesopotamia, while the ankh, a kind of cross with a loop at the top, was a prominent representation of life in ancient Egypt. The Enuma Elish tells the Mesopotamian story of creation and explains how Marduk became the chief of the gods. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a guide for the dead, setting out magic spells and charms to be used to pass judgment in the afterlife. Ancient Nippur was the site of the chief temple to Enlil, while Babylon was the location of Marduk’s sanctuary. Thebes and the temple complex of Karnak were home to the worship of Amen- Ra. In the modern world the remains of these early religions can be seen in Egypt’s pyramids, tombs for the pharaohs, and in Mesopotamia’s ziggurats, temples to the gods. The New Year’s Festival was a major event in Mesopotamian religion, while Egypt’s most important festival was Opet. Because Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” and generally prosperous and harmonious, Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion with an emphasis on a positive afterlife. In contrast, Mesopotamian religion was bleak and gloomy. Ancient Mesopotamian prayers demonstrate the lack of relationships with gods and goddesses who viewed humans with suspicion and frequently sent calamities to remind everyone of their humanity. Such was the message found in the Gilgamesh Epic.

Although the religions of both civilizations shared many similarities, the differences were vast. The most notable ones are the importance and belief of afterlife and the relationship between Gods. Because of these differences, we believe, the civilizations were different because in early times, civilizations revolved around their beliefs and values but unfortunately, there was an end to these great civilizations.

Back to Basics Cooking, Baking & Grilling

keeping your area clean while you cook is a chore in its self. My husband always laughs about the after math when I'm done baking. Here are some helpful ways to improve on making less of a mess in the first place. Use a bowl for your scraps and garbage as you go saving you time running to the trash making you more efficient. Using a thin flexible mat for your cutting board makes transferring vegetables to your pot much easier, by using the flexible mat as a funnel.

Getting into the habit of using a splatter screen when sauteing or shallow frying will save you a lot of time on your clean-up later. Measuring ingredients and using cooking spray over the sink will keep messes confined to an easy to clean area. Keeping a bottle of soapy water handy make it more likely that cleaning up as you go will become part of your cooking habits. Another tip is to cook more slowly. Be a deliberate in measuring, chopping and wiping between each step. but this is one tip I often do not follow my own advice, often trying to do to many task at one time.

With Spring just around the corner what better time than to take stock of what is in your pantry. Consolidate and organize and take note what you're low on. It is also a great time to check those expiration dates and dispose of any that expired. Make a list of items that you can stock in your pantry that will help make a meal quickly without a lot of planning. It is also a good time to add those family favorites.

Now that you have your pantry all organized it is time to turn your attention to the fridge. Do not be afraid to those bowls way in the back that have been forgotten about for weeks. It is a good time to check those condiments with cookouts just around the corner.

With everything clean and organized and Winter still here comfort food is the way to go. A pot of soup on the stove with grilled cheese sandwiches or a stew in the crockpot is the way to go. With Spring not too far away get those recipes out and start planning for fresh salads and garden vegetables. You will be amazed how time and clean-up will be and the fun of cooking, baking and grilling will not become a hard task but a lot of fun putting love in all the recipes for family and friends.